CONGO BASIN REGION: Etudes de cas du secteur forestier en Afrique Centrale. Rapport préparé pour la conférence ministérielle sur le respect de la gouvernance et l’application de la législation forestière en Afrique (AFLEG) Yaounde, 2003. Edité par le Centre pour l’Environnement et le Dévelopement la Rainforest Foundation & Forests Monitor Octobre 2003.
• Centre International d’Appui au Développement Durable (CIAD), CAMEROUN
• Observatoire Congolais des Droits de l’Homme (OCDH), CONGO/BZV
• Comité Consultatif des ONG de Conservation et de l’Environnement (CCOCE),
• Comité de Liaison des ONG du Congo (CLONG-CONGO), CONGO
• Réseau des Associations Autochtones Pygmées (RAPY), RDC
• Héritiers de la Justice, Association pour les Droits humains et la Résolution
pacifique des conflits, BUKAVU/RDC
• Association de Lutte contre l’exploitation non contrôlée des forêts
équatoriales, BRAINFOREST, GABON
• Fédération des Associations, GIC, Agriculteurs, Pisciculteurs, et Eleveurs du
Cameroun (FAGAP), CAMEROUN Groupe de Travail Forêts/Conseil Provincial
des ONG de Développement de Kinshasa (GTF/CRONGO), CONGO/KIN
• Education pour la Défense de l’Environnement et la Nature (EDEN), GABON
• Projet Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystemes Forestiers de
Guinée Equatoriale (CUREF), GUINEE EQUATORIALE
Speech by M. Jacques Chirac at the reception in honor of the Slavery Remembrance Committee (Paris, 30 January 2006).
Excerpt from Economic and Social Council, Summary record of the 17th meeting 11/05/2000: Republic of Congo
Mr. BIABOROH IBORO (Republic of the Congo), replying to a question about the situation of pygmies, said that the Constitution recognized them as Congolese citizens, granting them access to education and work. Everything possible was being done in terms of legislation and Government policy to integrate pygmies into society while also respecting their culture; however, since they constituted a national minority that had opted for a rural existence different from that of the majority of the population, problems sometimes arose in the integration process. He emphasized that many pygmies had paid employment in agriculture and could therefore not be regarded as slaves.
"Consideration of Reports submitted by states parties under Article 44 of the Convention, Republic of Congo" February 2006. NB: This report should be considered remarkable in that indigenous children are unacknowledge and excluded from the section that addresses highly vulnerable child populations such as disabled children, albino children, deaf children, etc.
Excerpt from ICG ""Beyond Victimhood: Women’s Peacebuilding in Conflict Situations" by Donald Steinberg (Sept 2006): "...Courageous women trying to make a difference are confronted with discriminatory legal, cultural, and traditional practices; hostility from men in power, often translated into threats of violence; and widespread sexual violence used as a weapon of war. This situation is so traumatizing that many women are unable or unwilling to play their rightful roles, reinforcing the unfortunate stereotype of women as merely victims...In Congo, participation of women in the Inter-Congolese dialogue, development of principles on empowerment in the Nairobi Declaration, and mobilization of women to register and run for office in July’s national elections encouraged the adoption of good provisions in the interim constitution. In particular, Article 14 calls for elimination of discrimination against women; participation of women in all political, economic, and social life; and elimination of violence against women – again, regrettably, without any enforcing legislation..."
Excerpt from programmme recorded May 2003 with Dr. Ayitegan Kouevi
Africa Expert, UN Indigenous Forum & Mililani Trask, Pacific Expert, UN Indigenous Forum:
VERAN: Well I think it would help our viewers if perhaps they could explain
what are some of the commonalities. Obviously, just our experts here represent opposite sidesof the globe and yet there are commonalities that make this internationally representative forum strong and cohesive. Could you explain some of those things?
KOUEVI: Yes. As Mililani has pointed out, since 1982 the United Nations has settled down a working group on indigenous population. And one of the mandates of this group is to draft a declaration on the indigenous people’s rights. And in 1994 this draft declaration was adopted by the sub-commission of human rights. Right now the question of the adoption of the declaration has been submitted for the human rights commission, but the declaration has not
yet been adopted. Why? Because states don’t want to deal with the right of self-determination because they think that the right to self-determination is a very important issue. When you deal with self-determination to indigenous people, maybe indigenous people can use these rights to cessation. That is why the most important things to do now is to come up with the adoption of the declaration.
VERAN: Can you explain, does self-determination require independence of a
nation state or kind of co-exist?
KOUEVI: The sense of self-determination is very very important for indigenous
people. Self-determination for most indigenous people means to have the rights to be recognized as such, as people within the framework of the nation. To have the rights, to have cultural rights, to have economical rights, to have the right to develop themselves as indigenous people. But States think that self-determination is the right given to people to constitute another state. This is one of the issue, very important issue that we deal …
TRASK: You know, there isn’t any doubt that one expression of the right of
self-determination would be complete independence. And the United Nations itself recognizes it in that it has a division since its inception that deals with the Non-Selfgoverning Territories. And international law provides this that those who are the inhabitants of the non-self-governing territories have a right to achieve a full measure of self-determination, which may be expressed
in the form of independence. But you are also right to say that there are other expressions and when you look at the draft declaration on the right of indigenous people, this is also provided for in the form of autonomous regions. When you look at the reality in the world today, you can see that there is great diversity in the expression of the right of self-determination..."
Paper available through UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Excerpt from website: "...The research theme was identified within the framework of the European Network for the Research Agenda on Children in Armed Conflict and is being developed by UNICEF IRC with the co-operation of a number of Network partners and UNICEF offices in the field. The aim of the research is to deepen understanding of issues of birth registration in the particular context of conflict and post-conflict situations. It reviews the problem of non-registration in conflict-affected countries while drawing on case studies to analyze successful or promising initiatives to ensure registration. The ultimate goal is to assist practitioners in the field in conflict and post-conflict environments to promote emerging encouraging practices in ensuring the right of the child to birth registration and thereby to the enjoyment of the many rights..."
Excerpt from the CBD website: "In addition to the Convention, a number of international instruments and initiatives are of particular relevance to traditional knowledge. They include the following: Agenda 21: Principle 22 of the main document that came out of the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro recognizes that indigenous peoples have a vital role to play in environmental management and development because of their traditional knowledge and practices;
The International Labour Organization's Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples: This Convention calls for action to protect the rights of indigenous peoples; United Nations Draft Declaration on the Rights of the Indigenous Peoples: The Commission on Human Rights of the United Nations has established an open-ended, inter-sessional working group to elaborate a draft United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Work is in progress; The Inter-American Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: An Indigenous Peoples and Community Development Unit has been established under this Declaration and is currently drafting a strategy on indigenous peoples; The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Asian Development Bank and the African Development Bank: These Banks are committed to ensuring that the development process promotes indigenous peoples' participation; The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank: Both organizations have launched programmes to promote indigenous peoples' development and to ensure that the development process fosters the full respect for the dignity, human rights and uniqueness of indigenous peoples. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD): Protecting and Promoting Traditional Knowledge: Systems, National Experiences and International Dimensions.
Excerpt from GITPA website: "...IWGIA (www.iwgia.org) est une organisation internationale à but non lucratif, politiquement indépendante et composée de membres adhérents . Les membres actifs dans son fonctionnement sont des chercheurs, des militants, des étudiants et toutes les personnes intéressées par la question des Peuples Autochtones. En 2003 a été créée la branche francophone d'IWGIA dénomée Groupe International de Travail pour les Peuples Autochtones (GITPA), association relevant de la loi 1901. Ce groupe est plus particulièrement destiné à développer des contacts avec les organisations autochtones et le public francophones. Il est constitué de membres ayant adhéré à IWGIA, de donateurs et de bénévoles. IWGIA et GITPA coopèrent avec les Peuples Autochtones de tous les continents et soutiennent leur lutte pour :
-les droits de l'homme et l'autodétermination
-leur droit de contrôler leurs terres et leurs resources
-leur intégrité culturelle
-leur droit au développement
Excerpt from IAITPTF website: "The International Alliance of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of the Tropical Forests is a worldwide network of organisations representing indigenous and tribal peoples living in tropical forest regions (Africa, the Asia-Pacific and the Americas). The Alliance was founded in 1992 during an indigenous conference in Malaysia, where the Charter of the Alliance was adopted, and has been fighting continuously for the rights of indigenous and tribal peoples ever since....Central Africa: Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo Brazzaville, Burundi, Central African Republic, Gabon, Cameroon...The Work of the Alliance: The work of the Alliance is divided into regional capacity building and training programs (inclusive of an internship program for regional representatives) and the work of monitoring and participating in international policy processes impacting on indigenous and tribal peoples. International policy work is carried out in two ways: primarily, through a system of 'Focal Points' in which members of the ICC are nominated to follow specific international processes; and secondarily, through the ITS' preparation of briefing papers and submission of funding applications to ensure regional participation in these processes. Processes that are currently being followed in the international arena include, but are not restricted to, the following: • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Article 8(j) • Follow-up on the Action Plan of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) and the World Conference Against Racism (WCAR) • UN Forum on Forests (UNFF) • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (SBSTA, COP) • UN Working Group on Draft Declaration • UN Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP)
• Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPF) • World Bank (and other multilateral organizations) policy on Indigenous Peoples • World Parks Congress
• World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)...Regional capacity building programs implemented by the Alliance focus on designing and implementing training programs within the regions on issues such as human rights, international law and other issues of importance to indigenous peoples. Support is also provided to the regions through the ITS in the form of information dissemination and coordination to ensure that work between the regions is complementary and effective.
Excerpt from International Alliance of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of Tropical Forests: "In preparation for this meeting, the International Alliance of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of the Tropical Forests commissioned a series of case studies looking at the extent to which national governments have met their international commitments towards promotion and protection of traditional forest related knowledge. The Alliance commissioned three regional studies, for Asia, Africa and Latin America, and a further nine national level studies covering Rwanda, the Democratic Repulic of the Congo, Kenya, India, Nepal, the Philippines, Panama, Venuzuela and Papua New Guinea. The commissioning of these case studies was generously supported by SwedBio. The Secretariat of the UNFF has additionally supported the commissioning of a further three national level case studies, for the Russian Federation, for Thailand and for Peru..." *NB: A Regional Africa case study is available via this link.
Excerpt from "Submission of the Forest Peoples Programme Concerning the Republic of Rwanda and its compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights" (October 2006): "...The Human Rights Committee will consider and adopt a list of issues on the country situation of Rwanda in the absence of a State report at its forthcoming session in October-November 2006. This NGO report has been prepared to provide the Committee with information concerning the situation of the indigenous Twa people of Rwanda. It is intended to assist the Committee to formulate questions to the State with regard to its compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights..."
Excerpt: "...This briefing looks at international financing for private sector projects from three different sources: the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Equator Principles Banks (EPBs) and Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). In 2006, these institutions adopted or are in the process of adopting new policy standards on indigenous peoples. The IFC is part of the World Bank Group (WBG) and until recently employed World Bank policies on indigenous peoples and
other issues. On 1 May 2006, a new set of IFC private sector-specific policies came into force, including a new instrument concerning indigenous peoples. The EPBs are 41 major commercial banks that have signed on to a set of environmental and social standards known as the Equator Principles. These Principles are based on the policies employed by the IFC and were recently updated to be consistent with the new IFC policies. ECAs are national level
bodies owned and operated by most industrialized countries that provide loans and export credits to their own national companies for their operations abroad. Most ECAs are meeting at the end of May 2006, to discuss whether they will adopt the new IFC standards and apply them in their projects. Considering that the new IFC policies will also be used by the EPBs and potentially by ECAs, this briefing will primarily focus on and summarize these policies, particularly the one directly addressing indigenous peoples. A more complete analysis of the
new IFC standards will be available later this year..."
*Excerpt from "Ensuring the Rights of Indigenous Children" published by UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre: "...The CRC is the first binding instrument in international law to deal comprehensively with the rights of children. The implementation of the CRC is monitored by the Committee on the Rights of the Child, which assesses the progress made by States Parties in fulfilling their obligations. In the context of its mandate, the Committee makes suggestions and recommendations to governments and the UN General Assembly on ways to meet the Convention’s objectives. The Committee also holds days of
general discussion on specific issues it considers to be of particular importance. In 2003, the day of general discussion was devoted to the rights of indigenous children...Article 30: The CRC is one of the first international human rights treaties to address explicitly the situation of indigenous children. While all the provisions of the Convention apply to these children, Article 30 specifically addresses their reality: “In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origins exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language.” The very existence of such an article indicates a concern regarding the need for special safeguards to ensure the enjoyment of indigenous culture, religion and language. It also highlights the importance of
the indigenous child enjoying these elements “in community with other members of his or her group”. In adopting this approach, the Convention acknowledges that certain activities draw their significance from the fact that they are pursued in a group that shares the same values. Thus, while this provision addresses the individual rights of the indigenous child, it further recognizes the collective dimension of culture, religion and language. Article 30 does not make explicit the important relationship between indigenous culture and the natural environment. Nonetheless, in indigenous communities the enjoyment of culture and the profession of religion are so closely linked to sacred sites and the natural environment that preserving this environment and ensuring access to land may be interpreted as a necessary prerequisite for the realization of the child’s right to “enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practice his or her own religion”...
In ROC, OCDH, with the supporting of the Rainforest Foundation, UK (under funding from DFID) has supported the process of developing legislation to specifically recognized the rights of inidgenous peoples in the Republic of Congo by developing the draft provisions and facilitating the participation/consultation of indigenous peoples. As of October 2006, OCDH has been involved in taking the draft provision out to community members for comment, input and amendment, but is facing constraints presented by what is a relatively short time frame. OCDH, with the support of Rainforest Foundation, is one of the leading national NGOs in the Republic of Congo in the area of human rights and indigenous peoples issues and published a series of excellent reports of the last year documenting the drafting process and human rights issues related to indigenous peoples.
Excerpt from UNICEF mission statement relevant to indigenous children: "...UNICEF is guided by the Convention on the Rights of the Child and strives to establish children's rights as enduring ethical principles and international standards of behaviour towards children...UNICEF mobilizes political will and material resources to help countries, particularly developing countries, ensure a "first call for children" and to build their capacity to form appropriate policies and deliver services for children and their families...UNICEF is committed to ensuring special protection for the most disadvantaged children - victims of war, disasters, extreme poverty, all forms of violence and exploitation and those with disabilities...UNICEF is non-partisan and its cooperation is free of discrimination. In everything it does, the most disadvantaged children and the countries in greatest need have priority...UNICEF aims, through its country programmes, to promote the equal rights of women and girls and to support their full participation in the political, social, and economic development of their communities..."
Excerpt: "...A 'solidarity network' for indigenous peoples in the Republic of Congo was launched on Friday in the capital, Brazzaville, at the end of a three-day meeting among groups involved in the protection of minority rights across the country. The network, to be headed by local human rights defence NGOs, will be responsible for maximising efforts to promote the rights of the Congo's indigenous populations, commonly referred to as "pygmies". "We are friends of the pygmies. Together with other NGOs involved in this domain, we will work to ensure that this network truly serves the interests of pygmies," Loamba Moke, president of the Association pour les droits de l'homme et l'univers carceral (Adhuc), a national human rights group, told IRIN..."
Intellectual property rights, traditional knowledge (sometimes referred to as TFRK) is an increasing important theme that relates to the Convention on Biological Diversity and its implications for indigenous peoples. Although intellectual property rights do not sit squarely within the domain of Human Rights, the issues are founded on questions of self-determination, participation, value systems and fundamental fairness. This reference explores some technical aspects of intellectual property and genetic technologies and highlights what is a growing concern for indigenous communities. Although the dialogue concerning intellectual property rights has occured principally in the context of the Americas (where indigenous peoples organizations are significantly further along in the civil society development process), intellectual properties (especially in relation to South African pharmaceutical development) will be an issue that can be expected to become increasingly important in the Central African context given its climate of fewer regulatory restrictions and lower levels of scrutiny that are generally favorable to private sector investment concerns.
Excerpt from research paper: "...Over the millennia, Indigenous peoples have developed a close and unique connection with the lands and environments in which they live. They have established distinct systems of knowledge, innovation and practices relating to the uses and management of biological diversity on these lands and environments...Much of this knowledge forms an important contribution to research and development, particularly in areas such as pharmaceuticals, and agricultural and cosmetic products. In the context of these uses, Indigenous peoples claim that their rights as traditional holders and custodians of this knowledge are not adequately recognised or protected. They demand not only recognition and protection of this knowledge, but also the right to share equitably in benefits derived from the uses of this knowledge...Existing intellectual property laws offer limited scope for the recognition of Indigenous peoples' rights in biodiversity related knowledge and practices. Similarly, native title, heritage and environmental laws and policies also provide insufficient means for addressing Indigenous rights in biodiversity-related knowledge and practices...The challenge is to protect the rights of Indigenous peoples to their knowledge, while also conserving biological diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity is one international instrument that has the potential to achieve both these objectives. Its primary objective is the conservation and management of biological diversity. It also provides opportunities for the protection of Indigenous knowledge practices and innovations related to biodiversity and for the introduction of measures for equitable sharing of benefits with traditional knowledge holders..."
Excerpt: "...Indigenous representatives charge that international patent and copyright laws are ''inappropriate'' for protecting their systems of traditional knowledge, and that such private rights inherently conflict with native beliefs on ''rights to use, and obligations to respect, the natural world.'' Experts gathered at a meeting organised by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), indicated that traditional knowledge requires new formulas for its protection in order to preserve it from exploitation and extinction. To do so, the most promising options would be ''to bridge traditional collective rights with the more modern and western concept of intellectual property rights,'' concluded the delegates at the UNCTAD meeting...From the trade and development perspective, the systems to preserve traditional knowledge should ensure that the benefits produced are distributed among the custodians and developers of such knowledge. Poorer countries could boost their development and trade by utilising traditional knowledge, defined as ''the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles'' as well as ''indigenous and local technologies,'' according to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. UNCTAD, meanwhile, emphasised that the ''bridge'' approach poses the question of responsibility of the holders and users of the knowledge, and of the equitable distribution of profits obtained from the utilisation of the resources provided by indigenous knowledge of biodiversity. But the idea of protecting traditional knowledge under the international regulations for intellectual property did not sit well with the representatives of indigenous communities at the meeting.
Currently, intellectual property rights (IPRs) ''are founded on private, economic rights, whereas indigenous peoples' systems are values-based'' and include the rights to utilise the natural world, but also to respect it, said the indigenous delegates..."
Excerpt from FPP website: "...Throughout Central Africa forest peoples experience persistent discrimination and are denied rights to lands and livelihoods, to organise and to represent themselves. Many suffer severe repression or other violations of their basic rights, when they call for reforms or resist imposed development schemes. The human rights violations they face include ethnic discrimination, state-sanctioned expropriation of lands and resources by logging, mining, agri-business and conservation projects, and physical violence including forced labour, abduction, torture, rape, murder, massacres and, in Democratic Republic of Congo, probably even cannibalism. While the rights of indigenous and tribal peoples in international law are now recognised in the laws and policies of South American and some Asian countries, on the African continent the indigenous peoples' movement is still at an embryonic stage...Our Africa Legal and Human Rights Programme, funded by the Law Society and the Sigrid Rausing Trust, aims to introduce a new dimension into the human rights debate in Africa, by building the capacity of indigenous organisations to use national and international legal processes to claim and defend their rights. This programme supports all our other projects in Africa too. By providing information, training and legal advice to indigenous peoples we help them identify the key issues needing legal support, and develop strategies for claiming the rights appropriate to their local and national context..."
*Key INGO actor in the Republic of Congo and other Congo Basin countries. Excerpt from website: "...The mission of the Rainforest Foundation is to support indigenous people and traditional populations of the world's rainforests in their efforts to protect their environment and fulfil their rights by assisting them in: Securing and controlling the natural resources necessary for their long term well being and managing these resources in ways which do not harm their environment, violate their culture or compromise their future; and Developing means to protect their individual and collective rights and to obtain, shape and control basic services from the state...The Foundation seeks to do this through practical projects in tropical rainforest areas, all of which work with local indigenous peoples or non-governmental organisations. We also run campaigns that seek to address the underlying causes of the destruction of tropical rainforests..."
This document is a formal complaint (in French) by indigenous peoples' organisations in the Democratic Republic of Congo to the World Bank Inspection Panel concerning the Bank's activities in DRC's forests, submitted by the complainants in December 2005 with support of the Rainforest Foundation, U.K.
*Key Issue: As of October 2006, draft legislation is pending in Parliment and represents what is a key current issue concerning the rights and status of indigenous peoples in the Republic of Congo. The consultative process has been supported by OCDH (a local NGO) with funding and technical support by the Rainforest Foundation under grants from DFID and the Baring Foundation.
INGO: "The Forest Peoples Project was set up in 1999 as the charitable arm of the Forest Peoples Programme, to improve social, economic and environmental conditions for indigenous and tribal forest peoples worldwide. We work with forest peoples to help them: Promote their collective and individual rights; Secure their lands and manage their natural resources; Carry out sustainable community development for the long-term relief of poverty; Educate policy makers, agencies and civil society about their concerns and aspirations." **NB: FPP's approach and experience are highly relevant to indigenous peoples of the Congo Basin.
INGO: "Defending Human Rights Worldwide"
"IWGIA works at local, regional and international levels to further the understanding and knowledge of, and the involvement in, the cause of indigenous peoples"
INGO: "working to secure the rights of minorities and indigenous peoples"
INGO: "We help tribal people defend their lives, protect their lands and determine their futures"
Final Report Parts I & II and other resources
Excerpt: "...La république du Congo, comme beaucoup de pays africains a une population en majorité féminine, (environ 52 % de la population du pays estimée à 2.800.000 habitants). Les conditions de vie sont de plus en plus précaires au Congo avec plus de 59 % de la population vivant au dessous du seuil
de pauvreté. Cette couche sociale, la plus importante, est victime de nombreuses atteintes. Si la discrimination est générale dans la participation aux institutions et le processus de prise de décisions, le taux de violences faites aux femmes est de loin la plus grave des atteintes à la dignité et à l’intégrité physique et morale de la femme. La femme connaît également beaucoup de
difficultés d’accès aux services judiciaires...Un cas spécifique est celui des femmes pygmées qui, dans le silence quasi général, vivent leur supplice dans une société composée en majorité de Bantous. Les Oubanguiens et les Pygmées sont des minorités nationales..."
Excerpt: "...L’Observatoire congolais des droits de l’homme (OCDH) en République du Congo a publié jeudi un rapport dans lequel il dénonce les violations des droits de l’homme de la minorité pygmées dans le pays.
Le rapport indique qu’indépendamment des facteurs liés au délabrement de l’administration congolaise, l’absence de pièces d’identité et le non enregistrement des enfants pygmées dans le registre d’état civil est l’expression de la négligence et du manque de considération manifeste des autorités congolaises à l’égard de cette minorité..."
*Key Reference for the Republic of Congo. Excerpt: "...Les minorités pygmées du Congo-Brazzaville sont victimes de toutes sortes de violations des droits de l’homme de la part des populations bantous qui, se basant sur de croyances erronées et des considérations rétrogrades, considèrent les Pygmées comme des sous-hommes qui ne peuvent disposer de mêmes droits qu’eux. « C’est ainsi que les pygmées « sont traités comme des esclaves, voire des « biens » appartenant à certains individus bantous qui se considèrent propriétaires des Pygmées. » L’Observatoire Congolais des Droits de l’Homme (OCDH) a fait ce constat déplorable à l’issue de deux missions d’enquêtes menées entre juin et août 2003 à Sibiti, une ville du département de la Lékoumou et dans les localités de Ngoua II, Souangui, Dounguila et Nyanga Paysannat, situées dans le département du Niari, pour la partie nord du pays ; et dans le département de la Sangha, plus précisément dans la commune de Ouesso et les localités de Gombé, Pokola et Kabo qui sont sous le contrôle administratif du district de Mokéko, pour la partie sud. Le rapport sur ces enquêtes a été publié au courant du mois de février 2004 à Brazzaville..."
Twa Peoples of the Great Lakes
*Recommended reference for those interested in the pending law on the rights of indigenous peoples in the Republic of Congo. As of 1 October 2006, proposed law is before the legislature and adoption/ratification is expected either this year or during the first session of 2007. Leading organization on the issue is OCDH in partnership with the Rainforest Foundation.
*Recommended reference by Dorothy Jackson of Forest Peoples Programme